Perspectives on Artificial Intelligence- Book Chapter Review

This is a brief discussion about this “Perspectives on Artificial Intelligence”  the chapter-2 of book by Stahl, B. C. [1]

It lays emphasis on the following things from ethical point of view:

  1. Characterization of AI as
    1. narrow AI,
    2. general AI and
    3. the mixed systems, which use combinations of things
  • Secondly, each of the three above dimensions are described in details.
  • Narrow AI [1]

The term is used for machine learning based algorithms. Broad seven categories of AI based research had been presented. The follow three points have been presented by authors [1] for ethical analysis

  1. The author states the mechanism and processing’s performed are not transparent.
  2. Further, some amount of non-predictivity is present due to presence of point 1 above.
  3. Finally, huge amount of training data is required as well.
  • General AI [1]

Also  known as “good old-fashioned AI” (GOFAI) [1] was based on fact that real world entities can be represented as objects based on AI, which could be used to solve problems just the same way as humans. And we all know we are not there yet. However, 65 years since its inception [1] not much progress has been made. The author attributes it to fact that only symbols can’t represent complete problems. As per author [1] general AI cannot cause ethical issues, since it is not developed in full-fledged composure. While at the same time science fictions have general AI use to abundance and discuss its ethics too.  This includes the Terminator and Space Odyssey movies.

These pays emphasis of ethics talks in AI.

  • Socio-Technical Systems [1]

These are systems that combine both above designs, to the best possible to solve some social problem. Ethical issues in this aspect are as follows [1]: (i) The computer system becomes self operating (ii) The computer guides as per its algorithms to human hence changing human decisions and (iii) these things impacts the society on large.


[1] Stahl, B. C. (2021). “Perspectives on Artificial Intelligence” Artificial Intelligence for a Better Future: An Ecosystem Perspective on the Ethics of AI and Emerging Digital Technologies (p. 124). Springer Nature.

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